出典：Preskill, H., & Russ-Eft, D. (2016, p.10-11). Building Evaluation Capacity: Activities for teaching and training. Sage publication.
■ Formative Evaluation is typically conducted for the purpose of refining or improving a program during its implication, though it is sometimes conducted for other reasons including compliance, legal requirements, or a part of a larger evaluation.
■ Summative Evaluation is implemented for the purpose of determining the merit, worth, or value of the evaluand in a way that leads to a final evaluative judgement. It is usually conducted after completion of the program (for ongoing programs) and for the benefit of some external audience or decision makers.
■ Monitoring is a continuing function that uses systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing [development] intervention with indicators of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds.”
■ Ｏutcome Evaluation is a form of evaluation that assesses the extent to which a program achieves its outcome-oriented objectives. It focuses on outputs and outcomes (including unintended effects) to judge program effectiveness but may also assess program process to understand how outcomes are produced.
■ Impact Evaluation is a form of outcome evaluation that assesses the net effect of a program by comparing program outcomes with an estimate of what would have happened in the absence of a program. This form of evaluation is employed when external factors are known to influence the program’s outcomes, in order to isolate the program’s contribution to achievement or its outcomes.
■ Performance Measurement is the ongoing monitoring and reporting of program accomplishments, particularly progress toward pre-established goals or standards. Performance measures or indicators may address program staffing and resources (or inputs), the type or level of program activities conducted (or process), the direct products or services delivered by a program (or outputs), or the results of those products and services (or outcomes).