First-order change is defined as an effort to eliminate deficits and problems for individuals while neglecting to address the causes that contribute to those problems (Watzlawick,, Weakland, & Fisch, 1974).
Second-order change focuses on changing systems that create problems rather than addressing the problematic symptoms, moves beyond a reactive response and involves efforts to alter shared goals, roles, and power relationships (Seidman, 1988).
引用：Scott, V., & Wolf, S. (2015). Community Psychology: Foundations for practice. Sage. (p. 266).